A Line Follower Robot, as the name suggests, is an automated guided vehicle, which follow a visual line embedded on the floor or ceiling. Usually, the visual line is the path in which the line follower robot goes and it will be a black line on a white surface but the other way (white line on a black surface) is also possible. Certain advanced Line Follower Robots use invisible magnetic field as their paths. Large line follower robots are usually used in industries for assisting the automated production process. They are also used in military applications, human assistance purpose, delivery services etc.
How does it work?
How Does it Work? The workings of a line follower robot are pretty straight forward. These robots have the capability to detect a black/dark line on a lighter surface depending on the contrast. They estimate whether the line underneath them is shifting towards their left/right as they move over them. Based on that estimation, they give respective signals to the motors to turn left/right so as to maintain a steady center with respect to the line. These robots usually use an array of IR (Infrared) sensors in order to calculate the reflectance of the surface beneath them. The basic criteria being that the black line will have a lesser reflectance value (black absorbs light) than the lighter surface around it. This low value of reflectance is the parameter used to detect the position of the line by the robot. The higher value of reflectance will be the surface around the line. So in this linear array of IR sensors, if the leftmost/rightmost IR sensor presents the low value for reflectance, then the black line is towards the left/right of the robot correspondingly. The controller then compensates for this by signaling the motor to go in the opposite direction of the line.
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